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Archive for May, 2007

Dear brother & sister!

O slave of Allah!

Allah has opened the door of repentance, so why should you not enter? “Repentance has a door whose span is the distance between East and West,” says a hadith; (and in another version “its span is the distance traveled in 70 years”). “It will not be closed until the sun rises from the West.”

Listen to the call of Allah: “O My slaves! You sin morning and evening and I forgive all your sins. So call on Me, I will forgive you all your sins.”

Allah extends His Hands in the night to forgive the sinner of the day and extends His Hands in the day to forgive the sinner of the night. And He loves to hear excuses. So why don’t you turn to Him?

How beautiful are the words of the repenting man who says: “I beseech You O Lord, in the name of Your honor, and (by) my ignominy that You have mercy on me. I beseech You in the name of Your Strength and my weaknesses. Your Self-sufficiency and my dependence. To you I submit my sinning, guilty forelock. You have many slaves apart from me. But I have no Master save you. There isn’t any refuge but with You nor escape from You except to You. I plead You O Lord, in the manner of the pleading of a destitute, and entreat You in the manner of a broken, downtrodden man. I beseech You in the manner of a blind man in fear. This is a supplication, O Lord, from one whose head is bowed down before your Majesty, whose nose is in the dust, whose eyes are filled with tears and whose heart has submitted.”

Consider this story:

lt is reported by a trustworthy man of the past that as he was passing through a street he saw the door of a house open. A woman came out with a child who was crying and pleading while she was pushing him out. She left him outside the house and slammed the door shut in his face. The child left the door and walked a distance. Then he stopped, looked about, began to think, and not finding any other place but his own house where he could take shelter nor anyone who would care for him as his mother would, he returned to his house dejected, sad. He found the door shut. He sat at the sill, put his cheek on the threshold and slept with tear marks on his cheeks. He was in this state when the mother opened the door. When she saw him in this state she could not control herself. She bent down, grabbed him to her bosom, began to kiss him and say in tears: “Oh my boy! My dear child! My very soul! Where were you? Didn’t I tell you not to disobey me? Do my bidding, and don’t force me to punish you, while I hate to do that.” Then she carried the child back and closed the door behind her.

That is the story of a mother and a child: the story of disobedience, punishment, return, forgiveness and unbound love. But the Prophet, salla Allah u alihi wa sallam, has told us that: “Allah loves His creation more than a woman does her child.” In fact, there is no comparison between the love of a mother for her child and that of Allah whose Mercy encompasses everything. Allah, azza wa jall, is immensely pleased with a man when he repents and turns to Him. And we shall never be deprived of anything by a Lord who is more pleased with the repenting man, than that man..

“..who was traveling through an arid land. He dismounted and took shelter under a tree seeking some rest. He lay there with his beast, loaded with food and water, at his side. But when he awoke, lo! The beast was gone! He began to search for it frantically. He climbed a hill but couldn’t see a trace of it. He climbed another hill and still no trace of it. Finally, when hunger and thirst overtook him, he said, ‘Let me go back to the tree, and lay down there until death overtakes me.’ So he went back to the tree, and lay there with eyes closed – in total despair. And lo! As he opened his eyes and raised his head, there the beast was, right before his very eyes, with all the food and water loaded on it intact! He rushed to it and picked up its halter. (Can you imagine his happiness) But lo! Allah is happier with a man when he turns to Him seeking His forgiveness, than the man who found his beast when he had lost all hopes.”

Know it, my dear brother & sister, that true repentance of every sin also brings with it humility and devotion to Allah, and that pleading of a penitent is very dear to Allah. So that what follows after repentance is obedience of a greater degree to the extent that sometimes Satan regrets that he enticed him into that sin at all. That is why you will see that those who repent become very much changed personalities.

Allah does not abandon a man who comes to Him a penitent. Compare the situation with that of a father who used to look after his son with great love and care, providing him with the best of clothing, food and toys. Then one day the father sent him on an errand. But, as the boy was walking an enemy took hold of him, tied him and carried him away to the land of the enemies. There his master treated him exactly in the opposite manner. So that whenever the boy remembered his father and his treatment, his eyes swelled with tears, and the heart with pain. He was in this condition of ill-treatment at the hands of his enemies, when their caravan happened to pass by his father’s place again. As he looked around he found his father standing nearby. He ran to him and threw himself at him crying “My father! My very father!”. His master followed him and was trying to pull him away, but the boy clung to his father, refusing to let him go. What do you think of this father? Do you think he will abandon him to the enemy, refusing to take back the child? If not, then what is your opinion of the Lord whose love of His creation is greater than the love of a father for his child? When a slave of His runs away from his enemies, and throws himself at the threshold of His door, rolling down in dust before him, saying: “O my Lord! Have mercy upon him who has no one to show Mercy save You, no Helper save you, no refuge save You, no Savior save You, I am Your slave, in Your need, dependent on You, beggar at Your door, You are the refuge, with You is the shelter, there is refuge but with You, nor escape from You except to You” then surely the Lord is not going to turn him back empty handed.

Come along then. On to the good deeds, to virtuous living, in the company of the righteous, steering yourself safe from deviations after the right direction, and misguidance after guidance. And Allah is with you.

Shaykh Muhammad Salih al-Munajjid
The Conclusion of the Book “I Would Like to Repent, But!…” Translated by Syed Iqbal Zaheer Taken From: http://www.orst.edu/groups/msa/books/repent.htm

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In the battle between reason/religion and whims/desires, we have the following weapons at our disposal:

1. We should remember the glory and greatness of Allah, and feel that He is too great to be sinned against as He is all-seeing and all-hearing. Whoever thinks of the greatness of Allah will never be at ease in committing wrong actions.

2. If we claim to love Allah, then we should not disobey Him, because of that love. A person should be obedient to the One he claims to love. Those who refrain from committing wrong action out of their love for Allah are of the highest status in His sight, as are those who worship Him out of love for Him. There is a great difference between the one who obeys Allah and abstains from wrong action Out of love, and the one who does so out of fear of punishment.

3. We should think of the blessings and favours of Allah, as a decent and noble person would never act against the one who has been treating him kindly- Only base and ignoble people do such a thing. If we think of the blessings and favours of Allah, we will realize that we should not respond by going against His commands and committing wrong action.

4. We should think of the wrath and punishment of Allah, as He will be angry with the person who persists in committing wrong action. Nothing can stand in the way of the consequences of His anger, least of all this weak slave of His.

5. We should think of what the person who commits wrong action has to lose, in this world and the next. It should be sufficient to think of the loss of iman (faith), of which the smallest amount is worth much more than everything in this world. How can anyone be willing to lose his iman in return for some brief

Moment of pleasure the consequences of which might last forever? In a sahih hadith, the Prophet (SAAS) said: “No adulterer is a believer at the time when he is committing adultery.” Commenting on this hadith, one of the Sahabah said: “His iman wil be dragged out of him until it goes over his head like a cloud. If he repents, then his iman will return to him.”

6. We should relish the idea of defeating the Shaytan and being victorious over him, because overcoming him, and our whims and desires, is a thing of joy and carries a great reward. It is like taking medicine and being rewarded with restoration to good health.

7. We should bear in mind the reward and compensation which Allah has promised to those who control their whims and desires, and abstain from that which is haram.

8. We should think of the special companionship of Allah, as He has told us: “Allah is with those who patiently persevere.” (al-Baqarah 2: 153) “For Allah is with those who restrain themselves and those who do good” (an-Nahl 16: 128) “For verily Allah is with those who do right.” (al-Ankabut 29: 69)

9. We should be ever mindful of death, which could come upon us at any time, suddenly and without warning

10. We should stop thinking of falsehood and bad ideas. Even if bad thoughts cross our minds, we should not let them stay, otherwise they may become hopes and wishes which we may act upon, and harm ourselves and others in the process.

11. We should gradually strengthen our religious motive in fighting whims and desires. Once we have tasted the joy of defeating those whims and desires, then our determination and willpower will grow stronger.

12. We should direct our thoughts towards contemplation of the signs of Allah which He has encouraged us to think about, whether they are in the Quran or in the universe around us. If such thoughts are constantly in our hearts and minds, this will help us to shun the whispering of the Shaytan. There is no greater loser than the one who, instead of thinking of Allah, His Book, His Prophet and his Sahabah, dwells on Shaytan and the ideas of Shaytan.

13. We should remember how short is our stay on this earth. No-one would want to feel that all he has achieved in this life is the worst kind of deeds, except a person who has no spiritual ambition, whose heart is dead and who is careless. Such a person will ultimately regret his deeds when he realizes that, far from benefiting him, they will lead to punishment. Even the person who has many good deeds to his credit will feel that sense of regret when he realizes that he could have done even more.

14. We should know that Allah has created us to live an eternal life with no death, a life of pride and ease with no humiliation, a life of security with no fear, a life of richness with no poverty, a life of joy with no pain, a life of perfection with no flaws. Allah is testing us in this world with a life that will end in death, a life of pride that is accompanied by humiliation and degradation, a life that is tainted by fear, where joy and ease are mixed with sorrow and pain. So many people are mistakenly seeking an easy life of power and pleasure in this world, but most of them never manage to achieve it, and those who do, enjoy it only for a brief time before it vanishes. The Prophets called people to an eternal life of plenty, and whoever answers their call will have the best life in this world, better than the life of kings and their followers, for zuhd in this life is true richness. This is something which the Shaytan greatly envies the believers.

Merely knowing the facts that we have outlined above is not enough. We have to strive and do our utmost to achieve our aim and attain perfection. The best way to do so is to put a stop to the habits that are controlling our lives, as these are the main obstacles which prevent us from succeeding. We should avoid places of fitnah and temptation, as the Prophet (SAAS) told us,

“Whoever hears of the Dajjal should keep away from him.” The best way to protect ourselves from wrong is to keep away from anything that could lead to it. One of the favourite tricks of the Shaytan, which deceives everyone except those who are clever enough to see it, is to show a person some goodness in a wrong thing, and call him to go towards what is good; when the person gets close to it, he falls into the trap.

Imam Ibn ul Qayyim Al Jawziyyah rahiimahullaah

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from at-Tawheed Publications

Another fundamental aspect of our belief is the topic of Al Walaa wal Baraa’. This topic if understood correctly clearly distinguishes the kaafir from the Mu’min (believer) and lays down clear principles with regards to the alliance, support and friendship towards the kuffar.

This is a very misunderstood and neglected part of ones belief in today’s reality. We live in a world dominated by man made law with the authority in the hands of the kuffar, we find millions of Muslims residing in the lands of the kuffar having homes, businesses and families. The common misconception is that it is these governments in the western world that are providing for us our sustenance and allowing us to reside in their lands peacefully and hence we should therefore reciprocally befriend them and treat them with courteousness. At the same time living and interacting with the kuffar on a daily basis the Muslims have begun to befriend them to the point whereby they are treated better than Muslims. The consequences of this are that when these governments attack and kill Muslims in other parts of the world we are in no way objective of it and accept their decision to do so without resistance, we also begin to see Muslims taking positions within these governments believing that what they are doing is for the benefit of the Muslims. The reasons for this are down to the neglect of the concept walaa wal baraa’ which has lead people to apostasy without them even knowing it.

Al-walaa wal baraa’ is divided into two aspects, al-Hubb (love) and al-Bughoud (hatred), both of which have to be done purely for the sake of Allah (swt). Al-Hubb means to love for the sake of Allah (swt) otherwise known as Muwalaat. Al-Muwalaat is to accompany, to love, to support, to ally, to help, to elevate, to respect and to befriend, all of which must be done for the sake of Allah (swt) in the manner that He has commanded. Al-Bughoud on the other hand is to have hatred for the sake of Allah (swt) also known as al-Muadaat, which is the complete opposite to muwalaat. Hence the requirement upon the believers is to have muwalaat with the Muslims and to have muadaat against the kuffar, to love Allah (swt), the Messenger and the Muslims and have hatred for the kuffar, to love all that Allah (swt) commands us to love and show walaa towards them, to have no rejection or animosity towards any of the commands of Allah (swt) and to hate all that Allah (swt) hates together with those who hate Allah (swt) and the believers. “O you who believe, do not take the kafireen as awliyaa’ instead of the Believers, do you wish to take Allah as a proof against you?” [EMQ 4: 144]

It must be clear in the minds of the Muslims that to love, support, ally, accompany, help, respect, elevate and befriend are attributes that should be directed solely to the Muslims and in no way towards the kuffar as Allah (swt) states in the Quran; “Let not the believers Take for friends or helpers Unbelievers rather than believers: if any do that, in nothing will there be help from Allah. except by way of precaution, that ye may Guard yourselves from them. But Allah cautions you (To remember) Himself; for the final goal is to Allah.” [EMQ 3: 28].

Al-Muwalaat is obligatory between the believers as Allah (swt) described the Muslims as a single brotherhood distinguishing us from the disbelievers. Allah (swt) says: “The Believers are but a single Brotherhood: So make peace and reconciliation between your two (contending) brothers; and fear Allah, that ye may receive Mercy.” [EMQ 49: 10]

Furthermore Allah (swt) warns us of the danger in taking the kuffar as our friends or allies; “O ye who believe! take not the Jews and the Christians for your friends and protectors: They are but friends and protectors to each other. And he amongst you that turns to them (for friendship) is of them.” [EMQ 5: 51-57]

It needs to be mentioned that by having hatred for the kuffar in no way means that we mistreat them, rather our hatred is part of our worship and is done purely for the sake of Allah (swt). Our hatred is for their disbelief and rejection of Allah (swt) and the deen of Islam, thus our treatment towards them must be in accordance with the command of Allah (swt) in order not to treat them unjustly. “Allah forbids you not, with regard to those who fight you not for (your) Faith nor drive you out of your homes, from dealing kindly and justly with them: for Allah loves those who are just.” [EMQ 60: 8]

Having understood this concept it becomes engrained into our belief and becomes part of our life. This concept of al-Walaa wal-Baraa affects every part of our life, in our dealing with Muslims and the kuffar, in terms of the way we feel about them and our actions in relation to them. Abdullah ibn Abbas said: “Al Muwalaat is the Love in the heart and the total support by the limbs and the tongue for the Deen of Islam exclusively.”

al-Walaa wal-Baraa forms the measurement for which we base our actions upon and it is the foundation by which all relationships within the Muslim community are formulated. The very testification to the shahaadah asserts this fundamental concept of al-Walaa wal-Baraa when we declare our rejection of all Taghoot and the complete and exclusive belief in Allah (swt). The fulfilment of Imaan is to fulfil its conditions and requirements in order to be truly deserving of the title; mu’min. The requirements of walaa and baraa are a very important aspect of our belief the negation of which will result in the failure to fulfil your Imaan. The Messenger Muhammad (saw) stated as narrated in Ahmad; “The most powerful knot of Imaan is to love for the sake of Allah (swt) and to hate for the sake of Allah (swt).”

Therefore in our current reality where we are living amongst the kuffar, where the governments of the western world have launched their crusade against the Muslims, where Muslims are being persecuted, arrested and detained, it is imperative that we maintain our walaa and baraa. We must understand the kuffar can never be equal to the Muslims, nor can there be any type of interfaith between us, nor any alliance or support for them and their cause as this will result in the neglecting of al-Walaa wal-Baraa and hence cause a deficiency in ones Imaan leading to the negation of it. If any Muslim makes Muwalaat to the kuffar, it is sin, however if they ally with them, they will become Murtad (apostate), but to ally with them to fight against Muslims, he becomes Murtad Harbie (an apostate at war with the Muslims).

We must stay clear of the kuffar, their beliefs and way of life, we must have hatred for their disobedience and carry hatred for their actions. We must not show any affection towards them nor to befriend them or to ally with them, we must not regard them as being better than the believers nor treat them better than the believers. We must however show affection towards the Muslims, to ally and support them, to love them for what they believe and the good they perform. We must keep company with Muslims and live amongst them, we must respect them at the same time having hatred for any sin they may do or any deviation they may carry. We must understand that to love and hate is done purely for the sake of Allah (swt) in accordance to whatever and whomever He (swt) loves and hates, as the highest and most foremost level of love and hate above all else is for Allah (swt) Himself.

“Whosoever possess the following three qualities will have the sweetness of faith; the one whom Allah and His messenger become more dearer to him than anything else, who loves a person and he loves him purely for the sake of Allah, and who hates to revert to disbelief as he hates to be thrown into hellfire” [Bukhari, Muslim]

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I am aware that there are many youths in the West who are puzzled as to what they should be doing for the sake of Allah Ta’aala (in terms of major obligations). Some will say, “Just focus on Da’wah,” others say, “Gain knowledge.” Before I give my opinion, I’ll place the question here that the questioner asked me:

as wr wb i am young brother who is extremely confused. brother i have looked at the state of the ummah and it saddens me, but i have realised that there are two solutions, seeking knowldge, then giving dawah ( resulting in many students and therefore mujahideen) or going straight to the land of the battle. they are both good but which one is our duty first, coming from the ayat and ahadith and salaf saalih.
brother also as u know most of the practising sabaab today are in this dillema
so if can plz, plz write an artice on this very detailed with daleel inshallah.
may allah guide you to his highest price jannatulfirdaus willingly or
unwillingly, reward youand fulfill your wishes. Ameen

I say: The obligation of all Muslims, both young and old, is to adhere to the Millah of Ibraaheem (‘alayhis salaam). There is no option to leave it except for cases of genuine forms (i.e., Shari’ conditions) of Rukhsah (compulsion) such as the example of ‘Ammaar bin Yaasir (radiyallahu ‘anhu) where he was tortured, beaten, and burned by the Quraysh; the Messenger of Allah (sallallahu ‘alayhi wassallam) asked him, “What has passed behind you?’ He said, ‘Evil, O Messenger of Allah. I was not left alone until I spoke badly about you and good things about their gods.’ So the Messenger of Allah (sallallahu ‘alayhi wassallam) said, ‘How was your heart (when you said it)?’ He said, ‘I found my heart calm with Imaan.’ He said, ‘If they return (to torment you), then you too return (to what they make you say).” [Hayaat As-Sahaabah, Vol. 1/292]

And whosoever leaves the Millah of Ibraaheem when he is not under any direct Rukhsah, then Allah says about such people:

وَمَنْ يَرْغَبُ عَنْ مِلَّةِ إِبْرَاهِيمَ إِلا مَنْ سَفِهَ نَفْسَهُ
And who turns away from the Millah of Ibrâhim except him who befools himself? (Al-Baqarah (2): 130)

Therefore, every young and old Muslim must be aware of – before finalizing his conclusions in obligations – what exactly the Millah of Ibraaheem entails and requires. A great book on this subject is the one entitled, “Millat Ibraaheem: And the Calling of the Prophets and Messengers and the Methods of the Transgressing Rulers in Dissolving it and Turning the Callers away from it,” by the imprisoned Shaykh, Abu ‘Asim Muhammad al-Maqdisi (fakkAllahu Asra). After one understands it, then they will realize that the obligations of Da’wah and seeking ‘Ilm is a part of the process and both of them have their own categories (i.e., one cannot be put over the other).

As for Da’wah, it is to be mixed with al-Wala’ wal Baraa’ah (loyalty and disavowal); and the Shaykh goes into depth regarding this in his book. As for seeking ‘Ilm, then this is continuous for every Muslim as it is part of his individual obligation to do such a thing because of the hadeeth,

“طلب العلم فريضةٌ على كلّ مسلم ومسلمة “
“The acquisition of knowledge is mandatory for every Muslim man and woman.” (Ibn Maajah)

If what you are asking is in regards to becoming an ‘Alim or studying for many years, then in my opinion – and Allah knows best – you should focus on being around those who are knights by day and monks by night; and they are the Mujaahideen (and those who wish to be with them). And those who are knowledgeable amongst them, take from their fruits and focus on supporting the Jihad fe Sabeelillah in whatever way you can, even if it is by the tongue for the Prophet (sallallahu ‘alayhi wassallam) said,

“جاهدوا المشركين بأموالكم، وانفسكم، والسنتكم”
“Make Jihad against the Mushrikeen using your wealth, selves, and tongues.” (Ahmad & An-Nasaa’ee; al-Haakim graded it Sahih)

And Jihad is fard ‘ayn today, so make sure you are participating in one way or another.

As for those who cannot go physically, then I strongly recommend them to become Scholars of this Ummah – since this is our strongest weapon against the ignorant and Munaafiqeen – and to never forget that Allah accepts Jihad against the Kuffaar by the pen and knowledge by the one who adheres to the Millah of Ibraaheem (‘alayhis salaam). And such people should never forget that the most famous university throughout Islamic history that many of them ended up (for adhering to the Millah) is prison; and by Allah, this is better than accepting a life of humiliation (by living under the Taaghoot without Baraa’ah). So if such people are not ready for accepting the life of hardships, then they are not the ‘Ulama that this Ummah is seeking for and they should live in the mountain paths worshipping Allah Ta’aala (away from society) so that they don’t misguide others to think that their weakness (of not enduring hardships) is strength.

The (intended) Scholars who wish to be upon the Millah must speak openly against the Tughaat, Mushrikeen, and Munaafiqeen as a sharp sword instead of choosing the life of comfort (in the Da’wah) because choosing the life of easiness in Da’wah is the abandonment of al-Wala’ wal Baraa’ah (i.e., the Millah). They must shun those who tell them, “If you speak like this, then you could go to jail!” For such people have abandoned the Millah; and if they make the excuse of “you could go to jail,” as a Rukhsah for abandoning the Millah, then verily their excuse is unacceptable as we have mentioned before.

The attitude of our Scholars should be the likes of Yusuf (‘alayhis salaam) when he said,

قَالَ رَبِّ السِّجْنُ أَحَبُّ إِلَيَّ مِمَّا يَدْعُونَنِي إِلَيْهِ
He said: “O my Lord! Prison is more to my liking than that to which they invite me.” (Yusuf (12): 33)

So as a Scholar of Islam, one should never become lenient with the Tughaat and must prepare himself to face the consequences – whether it be accusations, lies, critique, torture, or killing – of being on the path of truthfulness. This is far better than what they invite you to such as “freedoms”, and easiness of life.

For Muslims in general, it is important that they all adhere to this Noble Millah as it is their ‘Aqeedah; and to give up ones ‘Aqeedah for an easier life or a life without hardships is a recipe for humiliation in both worlds by the Lord of the worlds for He, The Exalted, said,

وَمَنْ يَكْفُرْ بِالإيمَانِ فَقَدْ حَبِطَ عَمَلُهُ وَهُوَ فِي الآخِرَةِ مِنَ الْخَاسِرِين
And whosoever disbelieves in the faith then his deeds are invalidated, and in the Hereafter he will be among the losers. (Al-Maa’idah (5): 5)

Finally, we turn to four types of people that are successful in upholding the Millah of Ibraaheem (‘alayhis salaam); so special attention must be given to this. The Shaykh, Abu ‘Asim Muhammad al-Maqdisi said in his book “Millat Ibraaheem” (Pgs. 129-132),

“And lastly, you must know that the people concerning this truth are of types:

• A man who is firm and who makes the Millah of Ibrāhīm and the religion of all the Messengers to be known according to its aforementioned description and he does not fear the blame of any blamers for (the sake) of Allāh. So this one is from the open Victorious Assembly (At-Tā’ifah Al-Mansūrah), while being a caller to the truth who mixes with the people and remaining patient with their harm. And he is the one who has won the honor of both abodes (i.e. this life and the hereafter). And he is the one about whom, Allāh said:

وَمَنْ أَحْسَنُ قَوْلا مِمَّنْ دَعَا إِلَى اللَّهِ وَعَمِلَ صَالِحًا وَقَالَ إِنَّنِي مِنَ الْمُسْلِمِين
And who is better in speech than he who says: “My Lord is Allāh,” and then stands straight, and invites (men) to Allāh and does righteous deeds, and says: “I am one of the Muslims.” (Fussilat (41): 33)

And he is the one meant in the Hadīth, “The believer who mixes with the people while being patient upon their harm is superior…”

And the harm only takes place because he comes with what the Messengers came with. He neither cozies-up to the people of falsehood, nor does he incline towards them nor is he satisfied with their falsehood. Rather, he has disavowal (Barā’ah) from them while openly showing enmity towards them and abandoning all that which assists them in their falsehood including their positions and their employment or careers or their paths. And whoever’s condition is this; he is not sinful for living in their society or their countries. And it is not obligatory upon him to emigrate away from any country he may be in. The Shaykh, Hamad ibn ‘Atīq said within his discussion about His, the Most High’s, statement:

قَدْ كَانَتْ لَكُمْ أُسْوَةٌ حَسَنَةٌ فِي إِبْرَاهِيمَ وَالَّذِينَ مَعَهُ
Indeed there has been an excellent example for you in Ibrāhīm and those with him… (Al-Mumtahinah (60): 4) – the verse.

And the meaning of His statement: “…become openly seen…” in other words, made apparent and clear. And the intent is to clearly continuously show enmity and hatred towards those who unify their Lord. So whoever fulfills that, both in knowledge and action, while openly making it clear so that the people of his country perceive it from him, it is not obligatory upon him to perform the emigration away from whichever country he is in. But whoever is not like that, and yet he assumes that if he is left to pray and to fast and perform the pilgrimage (Hajj), that the (obligation of) emigration falls off of him, then this one is ignorant of his religion, and he is someone who is unaware of the essence of the message of the Messengers…” (Ad-Durar As-Saniyyah, Volume of Jihād, page 199)

And this category of people; if they openly make the truth known and are thereafter threatened with being killed or tortured and yet there is no country, which they can emigrate to, then they have a good example in the people of the cave who withdrew with their religion and fled with it to the mountains. And another example (for them) is in the companions of the trenches who were burned (to death) in the path of their belief (‛Aqīdah) and their Tawhīd. And they neither weakened nor did they surrender. And an example is the companions of the Prophet, who performed the emigration (Hijrah) and performed Jihād and fought and were killed. And your Lord is sufficient as a guide and a victor.

If it were not for them, it would
have collapsed along with its people.
But its unshakable mountains
and its pegs were there.

And if it were not for them then
darkness would have shrouded its people.

But they are in it as full moons
and stars.
• Or a man who is at a lower level than the first, who is unable to take this path, which is surrounded by hateful things. And he fears for his religion and is unable to openly declare it. So he secludes himself with his provisions, with which he follows the streams and the paths of the mountains. He worships Allāh and flees, with his religion, from the trials.

• Or a weak man who shuts his house upon himself and concentrates on his family (affairs) and strives to save them and to preserve them from the Shirk and its people and from a fire (i.e. Hell) whose fuel is men and stones. He avoids the disbelievers (Kuffār) and turns away from them and he does not show any satisfaction with their falsehood nor does he assist it in any way. And this is a must for the safety of his Tawhīd, that his heart remains calm with enmity and hatred for the Shirk and the Mushrikīn. He awaits the removal of the preventing factor (of his leaving) and he waits for opportunities to flee with his religion and for the emigration (Hijrah), to a country, which has less evil and wherein he will be able to show his religion, such as the emigration (Hijrah) of the emigrants (i.e. the companions) to Abyssinia.

• Or another (type) would be one who openly shows the pleasure with the people of falsehood, while cozying-up to their lies and their misguidance’s. So this one has three different (possible) conditions, which the Shaykh, Ibn ‘Atīq mentioned…”

Regarding his last point, he explained this saying that the three conditions are that (1) he is Kaafir, (2) he is a Kaafir Munaafiq, (3) He complies externally, but hates them internally; so there are two conditions for this: (a) he is forced to because of them physically forcing him, so he is still a Muslim, and (b) He is not forced to comply, therefore he is a Murtadd.

The reason why the youth in the West have this dilemma of what to do is because the majority of the Scholars today have chosen to live the life of easy and comfort; a Da’wah that is absent of conflict and hardships from the Taaghoot and Mushrikeen. We find it distressing that such Scholars will say that their (cowardly) method of Da’wah is the Islamic method or an acceptable method; and they use the example of the Makkan Stage. It is strange for them to use such an example since in that period of time, the Sahaabah along with the Prophet (sallallahu ‘alayhi wassallam) were showing open Baraa’ah (disavowal) and thus they faced the hardships. Had they remained quiet like they did before the command from Soorah Al-Muddatthir, they would have never faced such overwhelming oppression. It was because of their Baraa’ah – which was commanded by Allah Ta’aala – of condemning the idols and their Shirk, condemning the practices of the Arabs (such as burying their daughters alive), and many more forms of condemnation, and it was because of their Wala’ to Allah ‘Azza wa Jall; the Kuffaar then proceeded to attack them, stone them, beat them, break them, burn them, torture them, and kill them. So what Makkan Stage absent of Baraa’ah are these Scholars referring to? Are they referring to the period before the revelation of al-Muddatthir?!

And Allah knows best.

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Question:
I have always heard that music, singing and dancing are haram in Islam. I went to this other site for the first time,XXX, and typed in music and all of these articles appeared which said music,dancing, and singing in Islam is halal??? They said “as long as the 2 sexes are not close together and their is no drinking going on” etc. and they even have hadiths that try to prove our Prophet Muhammed s.a.w was ok with this??? I am very confused now… Could you PLEASE give a full, detailed explanation about the Islamic ruling on music, singing and dancing and when it is allowed, if it is even allowed at all.

Answer:

Praise be to Allaah. 

Ma’aazif is the plural of mi’zafah, and refers to musical instruments (Fath al-Baari, 10/55), instruments which are played (al-Majmoo’, 11/577). Al-Qurtubi (may Allaah have mercy on him) narrated from al-Jawhari (may Allaah have mercy on him) that ma’aazif means singing. In his Sihaah  it says that it means musical instruments. It was also said that it refers to the sound of the instruments. In al-Hawaashi by al-Dimyaati (may Allaah have mercy on him) it says: ma’aazif means drums (dufoof, sing. daff) and other instruments which are struck or beaten (Fath al-Baari, 10/55).

 Evidence of prohibition in the Qur’aan and Sunnah:

 Allaah says in Soorat Luqmaan (interpretation of the meaning):

 And of mankind is he who purchases idle talks (i.e. music, singing) to mislead (men) from the path of Allaah…” [Luqmaan 31:6]

 The scholar of the ummah, Ibn ‘Abbaas (may Allaah be pleased with him) said: this means singing. Mujaahid (may Allaah have mercy on him) said: this means playing the drum (tabl). (Tafseer al-Tabari, 21/40).

 Al-Hasan al-Basri (may Allaah have mercy on him) said: this aayah was revealed concerning singing and musical instruments (lit. woodwind instruments). (Tafseer Ibn Katheer, 3/451).

 Al-Sa’di (may Allaah have mercy on him) said: this includes all manner of haraam speech, all idle talk and falsehood, and all nonsense that encourages kufr and disobedience; the words of those who say things to refute the truth and argue in support of falsehood to defeat the truth; and backbiting, slander, lies, insults and curses; the singing and musical instruments of the Shaytaan; and musical instruments which are of no spiritual or worldly benefit. (Tafseer al-Sa’di, 6/150)

 Ibn al-Qayyim (may Allaah have mercy on him) said: The interpretation of the Sahaabah and Taabi’in, that ‘idle talk’ refers to singing, is sufficient. This was reported with saheeh isnaads from Ibn ‘Abbaas and Ibn Mas’ood. Abu’l-Sahbaa’ said: I asked Ibn Mas’ood about the aayah (interpretation of the meaning), ‘“And of mankind is he who purchases idle talks’ [Luqmaan 31:6]. He said: By Allaah, besides Whom there is no other god, this means singing – and he repeated it three times. It was also reported with a saheeh isnaad from Ibn ‘Umar (may Allaah be pleased with them both) that this means singing. There is no contradiction between the interpretation of “idle talk” as meaning singing and the interpretation of it as meaning stories of the Persians and their kings, and the kings of the Romans, and so on, such as al-Nadr ibn al-Haarith used to tell to the people of Makkah to distract them from the Qur’aan. Both of them are idle talk. Hence Ibn ‘Abbaas said: “Idle talk” is falsehood and singing. Some of the Sahaabah said one and some said the other, and some said both. Singing is worse and more harmful than stories of kings, because it leads to zinaa and makes hypocrisy grow (in the heart); it is the trap of the Shaytaan, and it clouds the mind. The way in which it blocks people from the Qur’aan is worse than the way in which other kinds of false talk block them, because people are naturally inclined towards it and tend to want to listen to it. The aayaat condemn replacing the Qur’aan with idle talk in order to mislead (men) from the path of Allaah without knowledge and taking it as a joke, because when an aayah of the Qur’aan is recited to such a person, he turns his back as if he heard them not, as if there were deafness in his ear. If he hears anything of it, he makes fun of it. All of this happens only in the case of the people who are most stubbornly kaafirs and if some of it happens to singers and those who listen to them, they both have a share of this blame. (Ighaathat al-Lahfaan, 1/258-259).

 Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):

 “[Allaah said to Iblees:] And befool them gradually those whom you can among them with your voice (i.e. songs, music, and any other call for Allaah’s disobedience)…” [al-Israa’ 17:64]

 It was narrated that Mujaahid (may Allaah have mercy on him) said: “And befool them gradually those whom you can among them with your voice” – his voice [the voice of Iblees/Shaytaan] is singing and falsehood. Ibn al-Qayyim (may Allaah have mercy on him) said: This idaafah [possessive or genitive construction, i.e., your voice] serves to make the meaning specific, as with the phrases [translated as] “your cavalry” and “your infantry” [later in the same aayah]. Everyone who speaks in any way that is not obedient to Allaah, everyone who blows into a flute or other woodwind instrument, or who plays any haraam kind of drum, this is the voice of the Shaytaan. Everyone who walks to commit some act of disobedience towards Allaah is part of his [the Shaytaan’s] infantry, and anyone who rides to commit sin is part of his cavalry. This is the view of the Salaf, as Ibn ‘Abi Haatim narrated from Ibn ‘Abbaas: his infantry is everyone who walks to disobey Allaah. (Ighaathat al-Lahfaan).

 Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):

 Do you then wonder at this recitation (the Qur’aan)?

And you laugh at it and weep not,

Wasting your (precious) lifetime in pastime and amusements (singing)”

[al-Najm 53:59-61]

  ‘Ikrimah (may Allaah have mercy on him) said: it was narrated from Ibn ‘Abbaas that al-sumood [verbal noun from saamidoon, translated here as Wasting your (precious) lifetime in pastime and amusements (singing)”] means “singing”, in the dialect of Himyar; it might be said “Ismidi lanaa” [‘sing for us’ – from the same root as saamidoon/sumood] meaning “ghaniy” [sing]. And he said (may Allaah have mercy on him): When they [the kuffaar] heard the Qur’aan, they would sing, then this aayah was revealed. 

Ibn Katheer (may Allaah have mercy on him) said: Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning) “Wasting your (precious) lifetime in pastime and amusements (singing)” – Sufyaan al-Thawri said, narrating from his father from Ibn ‘Abbaas: (this means) singing. This is Yemeni (dialect): ismad lana means ghan lana [sing to us]. This was also the view of ‘Ikrimah. (Tafseer Ibn Katheer).

 It was reported from Abu Umaamah (may Allaah be pleased with him) that the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “Do not sell singing slave women, do not buy them and do not teach them. There is nothing good in this trade, and their price is haraam. Concerning such things as this the aayah was revealed (interpretation of the meaning): ‘And of mankind is he who purchases idle talks (i.e. music, singing) to mislead (men) from the path of Allaah…’ [Luqmaan 31:6].” (Hasan hadeeth)

 The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said:

 “Among my ummah there will certainly be people who permit zinaa, silk, alcohol and musical instruments…” (Narrated by al-Bukhaari ta’leeqan, no. 5590; narrated as mawsool by al-Tabaraani and al-Bayhaqi. See al-Silsilah al-Saheehah by al-Albaani, 91).

 Ibn al-Qayyim (may Allaah have mercy on him) said: This is a saheeh hadeeth narrated by al-Bukhaari in his Saheeh, where he quoted it as evidence and stated that it is mu’allaq and majzoom. He said: Chapter on what was narrated concerning those who permit alcohol and call it by another name.

 This hadeeth indicates in two ways that musical instruments and enjoyment of listening to music are haraam. The first is the fact that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “[they] permit” which clearly indicates that the things mentioned, including musical instruments, are haraam according to sharee’ah, but those people will permit them. The second is the fact that musical instruments are mentioned alongside things which are definitely known to be haraam, i.e., zinaa and alcohol: if they (musical instruments) were not haraam, why would they be mentioned alongside these things? (adapted from al-Silsilah al-Saheehah by al-Albaani, 1/140-141)

Shaykh al-Islam (Ibn Taymiyah) (may Allaah have mercy on him) said: This hadeeth indicates that ma’aazif are haraam, and ma’aazif means musical instruments according to the scholars of (Arabic) language. This word includes all such instruments. (al-Majmoo’, 11/535).

Ibn al-Qayyim (may Allaah have mercy on him) said: And concerning the same topic similar comments were narrated from Sahl ibn Sa’d al-Saa’idi, ‘Imraan ibn Husayn, ‘Abd-Allaah ibn ‘Amr, ‘Abd-Allaah ibn ‘Abbaas, Abu Hurayrah, Abu Umaamah al-Baahili, ‘Aa’ishah Umm al-Mu’mineen, ‘Ali ibn Abi Taalib, Anas ibn Maalik, ‘Abd al-Rahmaan ibn Saabit and al-Ghaazi ibn Rabee’ah. Then he mentioned it in Ighaathat al-Lahfaan, and it indicates that they (musical instruments) are haraam.

It was narrated that Naafi’ (may Allaah have mercy on him) said: Ibn ‘Umar heard a woodwind instrument, and he put his fingers in his ears and kept away from that path. He said to me, O Naafi’, can you hear anything? I said, No. So he took his fingers away from his ears and said: I was with the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) and he heard something like this, and he did the same thing. (Saheeh Abi Dawood). Some insignificant person said that this hadeeth does not prove that musical instruments are haraam, because if that were so, the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) would have instructed Ibn ‘Umar (may Allaah be pleased with them both) to put his fingers in his ears as well, and Ibn ‘Umar would have instructed Naafi’ to do likewise! The response to this is: He was not listening to it, but he could hear it. There is a difference between listening and hearing. Shaykh al-Islam (Ibn Taymiyah) (may Allaah have mercy on him) said: Concerning (music) which a person does not intend to listen to, there is no prohibition or blame, according to scholarly consensus. Hence blame or praise is connected to listening, not to hearing. The one who listens to the Qur’aan will be rewarded for it, whereas the one who hears it without intending or wanting to will not be rewarded for that, because actions are judged by intentions. The same applies to musical instruments which are forbidden: if a person hears them without intending to, that does not matter. (al-Majmoo’, 10/78).

Ibn Qudaamah al-Maqdisi (may Allaah have mercy on him) said: the listener is the one who intends to hear, which was not the case with Ibn ‘Umar (may Allaah be pleased with them both); what happened in his case was hearing. The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) needed to know when the sound stopped because he had moved away from that path and blocked his ears. So he did not want to go back to that path or unblock his ears until the noise had stopped, so when he allowed Ibn ‘Umar to continue hearing it, this was because of necessity. (al-Mughni, 10/173)

 (Even though the hearing referred to in the comments of the two imaams is makrooh, it was permitted because of necessity, as we will see below in the comments of Imaam Maalik (may Allaah have mercy on him). And Allaah knows best).

 The views of the scholars (imaams) of Islam

Al-Qaasim (may Allaah have mercy on him) said: Singing is part of falsehood. Al-Hasan (may Allaah have mercy on him) said: if there is music involved in a dinner invitation (waleemah), do not accept the invitation (al-Jaami by al-Qayrawaani, p. 262-263).

 Shaykh al-Islam Ibn Taymiyah (may Allaah have mercy on him) said: The view of the four Imaams is that all kinds of musical instruments are haraam. It was reported in Saheeh al-Bukhaari and elsewhere that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said that there would be among his ummah those who would allow zinaa, silk, alcohol and musical instruments, and he said that they would be transformed into monkeys and pigs… None of the followers of the imaams mentioned any dispute concerning the matter of music. (al-Majmoo’, 11/576).

Al-Albaani (may Allaah have mercy on him) said: The four madhhabs are agreed that all musical instruments are haraam. (al-Saheehah, 1/145).

Ibn al-Qayyim (may Allaah have mercy on him) said: The madhhab of Abu Haneefah is the strictest in this regard, and his comments are among the harshest. His companions clearly stated that it is haraam to listen to all musical instruments such as the flute and the drum, even tapping a stick. They stated that it is a sin which implies that a person is a faasiq (rebellious evil doer) whose testimony should be rejected. They went further than that and said that listening to music is fisq (rebellion, evildoing) and enjoying it is kufr (disbelief). This is their words. They narrated in support of that a hadeeth which could not be attributed to the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him). They said: he should try not to hear it if he passes by it or it is in his vicinity. Abu Yoosuf said, concerning a house from which could be heard the sound of musical instruments: Go in without their permission, because forbidding evil actions is obligatory, and if it were not allowed to enter without permission, people could not have fulfilled the obligatory duty (of enjoining what is good and forbidding what is evil). (Ighaathat al-Lahfaan, 1/425).

 Imaam Maalik (may Allaah have mercy on him) was asked about playing the drum or flute, if a person happens to hear the sound and enjoy it whilst he is walking or sitting. He said: He should get up if he finds that he enjoys it, unless he is sitting down for a need or is unable to get up. If he is on the road, he should either go back or move on. (al-Jaami’ by al-Qayrawaani, 262). He (may Allaah have mercy on him) said: “The only people who do things like that, in our view, are faasiqs.” (Tafseer al-Qurtubi, 14/55).

 Ibn ‘Abd al-Barr (may Allaah have mercy on him) said: Among the types of earnings which are haraam by scholarly consensus are ribaa, the fee of a prostitute, anything forbidden, bribes, payment for wailing over the dead and singing, payments to fortune-tellers and those who claim to know the unseen and astrologers, payments for playing flutes, and all kinds of gambling. (al-Kaafi).

 Ibn al-Qayyim (may Allaah have mercy on him) said, explaining the view of Imaam al-Shaafa’i: His companions who know his madhhab (point of view) stated that it is haraam and denounced those who said that he permitted it. (Ighaathat al-Lahfaan, 1/425).

 The author of Kifaayat al-Akhbaar, who was one of the Shaafa’is, counted musical instruments such as flutes and others, as being munkar (evil), and the one who is present (where they are being played) should denounce them. (He cannot be excused by the fact that there are bad scholars, because they are corrupting the sharee’ah, or evil faqeers – meaning the Sufis, because they call themselves fuqaraa’ or faqeers – because they are ignorant and follow anyone who makes noise; they are not guided by the light of knowledge; rather they are blown about by every wind. (Kifaayat al-Akhbaar, 2/128).

 Ibn al-Qayyim (may Allaah have mercy on him) said: With regard to the view of Imaam Ahmad, his son ‘Abd-Allaah said: I asked my father about singing. He said: Singing makes hypocrisy grow in the heart; I do not like it. Then he mentioned the words of Maalik: the evildoers (faasiqs) among us do that. (Ighaathat al-Lahfaan).

 Ibn Qudaamah, the researcher of the Hanbali madhhab – (may Allaah have mercy on him) said: Musical instruments are of three types which are haraam. These are the strings and all kinds of flute, and the lute, drum and rabaab (stringed instrument) and so on. Whoever persists in listening to them, his testimony should be rejected. (al-Mughni, 10/173). And he said (may Allaah have mercy on him); If a person is invited to a gathering in which there is something objectionable, such as wine and musical instruments, and he is able to denounce it, then he should attend and speak out against it, because then he will be combining two obligatory duties. If he is not able to do that, then he should not attend. (al-Kaafi, 3/118)

 Al-Tabari (may Allaah have mercy on him) said: The scholars of all regions are agreed that singing is makrooh and should be prevented. Although Ibraaheem ibn Sa’d and ‘Ubayd-Allaah al-‘Anbari differed from the majority, (it should be noted that) the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “Adhere to the majority.” And whoever dies differing from the majority, dies as a jaahili. (Tafseer al-Qurtubi, 14/56). In earlier generations, the word “makrooh” was used to mean haraam, then it took on the meaning of “disliked”. But this is to be understood as meaning that it is forbidden, because he [al-Tabari] said “it should be prevented”, and nothing is to be prevented except that which is haraam; and because in the two hadeeths quoted, music is denounced in the strongest terms. Al-Qurtubi (may Allaah have mercy on him) is the one who narrated this report, then he said: Abu’l-Faraj and al-Qaffaal among our companions said: the testimony of the singer and the dancer is not to be accepted. I say: if it is proven that this matter is not permissible, then accepting payment for it is not permissible either.

 Shaykh al-Fawzaan (may Allaah preserve him) said: What Ibraaheem ibn Sa’d and ‘Ubayd-Allaah al-‘Anbari said about singing is not like the kind of singing that is known nowadays, for they would never have allowed this kind of singing which is the utmost in immorality and obscenity. (al-I’laam)

 Ibn Taymiyah (may Allaah have mercy on him) said: It is not permissible to make musical instruments. (al-Majmoo’, 22/140). And he said: According to the majority of fuqahaa’, it is permissible to destroy musical instruments, such as the tanboor [a stringed instrument similar to a mandolin]. This is the view of Maalik and is the more famous of the two views narrated from Ahmad. (al-Majmoo’, 28/113). And he said: …Ibn al-Mundhir mentioned that the scholars were agreed that it is not permissible to pay people to sing and wail… the consensus of all the scholars whose views we have learned about is that wailing and singing are not allowed. Al-Shu’bi, al-Nakha’i and Maalik regarded that as makrooh [i.e., haraam]. Abu Thawr, al-Nu’maan – Abu Haneefah (may Allaah have mercy on him) – and Ya’qoob and Muhammad, two of the students of Abu Haneefah said: it is not permissible to pay anything for singing and wailing. This is our view. And he said: musical instruments are the wine of the soul, and what it does to the soul is worse than what intoxicating drinks do. (Majmoo’ al-Fataawa, 10/417).

 Ibn Abi Shaybah (may Allaah have mercy on him) reported that a man broke a mandolin belonging to another man, and the latter took his case to Shurayh. But Shurayh did not award him any compensation – i.e., he did not make the first man pay the cost of the mandolin, because it was haraam and had no value. (al-Musannaf, 5/395).

 Al-Baghawi (may Allaah have mercy on him) stated in a fatwa that it is haraam to sell all kinds of musical instruments such as mandolins, flutes, etc. Then he said: If the images are erased and the musical instruments are altered, then it is permissible to sell their parts, whether they are silver, iron, wood or whatever. (Sharh al-Sunnah, 8/28)

 An appropriate exception

 The exception to the above is the daff – without any rings (i.e., a hand-drum which looks like a tambourine, but without any rattles) – when used by women on Eids and at weddings. This is indicated by saheeh reports. Shaykh al-Islam (may Allaah have mercy on him) said: But the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) made allowances for certain types of musical instruments at weddings and the like, and he made allowances for women to play the daff at weddings and on other joyful occasions. But the men at his time did not play the daff or clap with their hands. It was narrated in al-Saheeh that he said: “Clapping is for women and tasbeeh (saying Subhaan Allaah) is for men.” And he cursed women who imitate men and men who imitate women. Because singing and playing the daff are things that women do, the Salaf used to call any man who did that a mukhannath (effeminate man), and they used to call male singers effeminate – and how many of them there are nowadays! It is well known that the Salaf said this.

 In a similar vein is the hadeeth of ‘Aa’ishah (may Allaah be pleased with her), when her father (may Allaah be pleased with him) entered upon her at the time of Eid, and there were two young girls with her who were singing the verses that the Ansaar had said on the day of Bu’aath – and any sensible person will know what people say about war. Abu Bakr (may Allaah be pleased with him) said: “Musical instruments of the Shaytaan in the house of the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him)!” The Messenger of Allaah had turned away from them and was facing the wall – hence some scholars said that Abu Bakr (may Allaah be pleased with him) would not tell anybody off in front of the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him), but he thought that the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) was not paying attention to what was happening. And Allaah knows best. He (the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him)) said: “Leave them alone, O Abu Bakr, for every nation has its Eid, and this is our Eid, the people of Islam.” This hadeeth shows that it was not the habit of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) and his companions to gather to listen to singing, hence Abu Bakr al-Siddeeq called it “the musical instruments of the Shaytaan”. And the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) approved of this appellation and did not deny it when he said, “Leave them alone, for every nation has its Eid and this is our Eid.” This indicates that the reason why this was permitted was because it was the time of Eid, and the prohibition remained in effect at times other than Eid, apart from the exceptions made for weddings in other ahaadeeth. Shaykh al-Albaani explained this in his valuable book Tahreem Aalaat al-Tarab (the Prohibition of Musical Instruments). The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) approved of young girls singing at Eid, as stated in the hadeeth: “So that the mushrikeen will know that in our religion there is room for relaxation.” There is no indication in the hadeeth about the two young girls that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) was listening to them. The commands and prohibitions have to do with listening, not merely hearing, just as in the case of seeing, the rules have to do with intentionally looking and not what happens by accident. So it is clear that this is for women only. Imaam Abu ‘Ubayd (may Allaah have mercy on him) defined the daff as “that which is played by women.” (Ghareeb al-Hadeeth, 3/64).

An inappropriate exception

 Some of them make an exception for drums at times of war, and consequentially some modern scholars have said that military music is allowed. But there is no basis for this at all, for a number of reasons, the first of which is that this is making an exception with no clear evidence, apart from mere opinion and thinking that it is good, and this is wrong. The second reason is that what the Muslims should do at times of war is to turn their hearts towards their Lord. Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):

“They ask you (O Muhammad) about the spoils of war. Say: ‘The spoils are for Allaah and the Messenger.’ So fear Allaah and adjust all matters of difference among you…” [al-Anfaal 8:1]. But using music is the opposite of this idea of taqwa and  it would distract them from remembering their Lord. Thirdly, using music is one of the customs of the kuffaar, and it is not permitted to imitate them, especially with regard to something that Allaah has forbidden to us in general, such as music. (al-Saheehah, 1/145)

 “No people go astray after having been guided except they developed arguments amongst themselves.” (Saheeh)

 Some of them used the hadeeth about the Abyssinians playing in the mosque of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) as evidence that singing is allowed! Al-Bukhaari included this hadeeth in his Saheeh under the heading Baab al-Hiraab wa’l-Daraq Yawm al-‘Eid (Chapter on Spears and Shields on the Day of Eid). Al-Nawawi (may Allaah have mercy on him) said: This indicates that it is permissible to play with weapons and the like in the mosque, and he applied that to other activities connected with jihaad. (Sharh Muslim). But as al-Haafiz ibn Hajar (may Allaah have mercy on him) said: whoever speaks about something which is not his profession will come up with weird ideas such as these.

 Some of them use as evidence the hadeeth about the singing of the two young girls, which we have discussed above, but we will quote what Ibn al-Qayyim (may Allaah have mercy on him) said, because it is valuable:

 I am amazed that you quote as evidence for allowing listening to sophisticated songs the report which we mentioned about how two young girls who were below the age of puberty sang to a young woman on the day of Eid some verses of Arab poetry about bravery in war and other noble characteristics. How can you compare this to that? What is strange is that this hadeeth is one of the strongest proofs against them. The greatest speaker of the truth [Abu Bakr al-Siddeeq] called them musical instruments of the Shaytaan, and the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) approved of that appellation, but he made an exception in the case of these two young girls who had not yet reached the age of responsibility and the words of whose songs could not corrupt anyone who listened to them. Can this be used as evidence to allow what you do and what you know of listening (to music) which includes (bad) things which are not hidden?! Subhaan Allaah! How people can be led astray! (Madaarij al-Saalikeen, 1/493).

 Ibn al-Jawzi (may Allaah have mercy on him) said: ‘Aa’ishah (may Allaah be pleased with her) was young at that time; nothing was transmitted from her after she reached the age of puberty except condemnation of singing. Her brother’s son, al-Qaasim ibn Muhammad, condemned singing and said that it was not allowed to listen to it, and he took his knowledge from her. (Talbees Iblees, 229). Al-Haafiz ibn Hajar (may Allaah have mercy on him) said: A group of the Sufis used this hadeeth – the hadeeth about the two young girls – as evidence that singing is allowed and it is allowed to listen to it, whether it is accompanied by instruments or not. This view is sufficiently refuted by the clear statement of ‘Aa’ishah in the following hadeeth, where she says, “They were not singers.” She made it clear that they were not singers as such, although this may be understood from the wording of the report. So we should limit it to what was narrated in the text as regards the occasion and the manner, so as to reduce the risk of going against the principle, i.e., the hadeeth. And Allaah knows best. (Fath al-Baari, 2/442-443).

 Some people even have the nerve to suggest that the Sahaabah and Taabi’een listened to singing, and that they saw nothing wrong with it!

 Al-Fawzaan (may Allaah preserve him) said: We demand them to show us saheeh isnaads going back to these Sahaabah and Taabi’een, proving what they attribute to them.  Then he said: Imaam Muslim mentioned in his introduction to his Saheeh that ‘Abd-Allaah ibn al-Mubaarak said: The isnaad is part of religion. Were it not for the isnaad, whoever wanted to could say whatever he wanted to.

 Some of them said that the ahaadeeth which forbid music are full of faults. No hadeeth was free of being criticized by some of the scholars. Ibn Baaz (may Allaah have mercy on him) said: The ahaadeeth which were narrated concerning music being haraam are not full of faults as has been claimed. Some of them are in Saheeh al-Bukhaari which is the soundest of books after the Book of Allaah, and some of them are hasan and some are da’eef. But because they are so many, with different isnaads, they constitute definitive proof that singing and musical instruments are haraam. 

All the imaams agreed on the soundness of the ahaadeeth which forbid singing and musical instruments, apart from Abu Haamid al-Ghazzaali, but al-Ghazzaali did not have knowledge of hadeeth; and Ibn Hazam, but al-Albaani (may Allaah have mercy on him) explained where Ibn Hazam went wrong, and Ibn Hazam himself said that if any of (these ahaadeeth) were saheeh, he would follow that. But now they have proof that these reports are saheeh because there are so many books by the scholars which state that these ahaadeeth are saheeh, but they turn their backs on that. They are far more extreme than Ibn Hazam and they are nothing like him, for they are not qualified and cannot be referred to.

 Some of them said that the scholars forbade singing because it is mentioned alongside gatherings in which alcohol is drunk and where people stay up late at night for evil purposes.

 Al-Shawkaani (may Allaah have mercy on him) said: The response to this is that mentioning these things in conjunction does not only mean that what is haraam is what is joined together in this manner. Otherwise this would mean that zinaa, as mentioned in the ahaadeeth, is not haraam unless it is accompanied by alcohol and the use of musical instruments. By the same token, an aayah such as the following (interpretation of the meaning):

Verily, he used not to believe in Allaah, the Most Great,

And urged not on the feeding of Al‑Miskeen (the poor).”

[al-Haaqqah 69:33-34]

would imply that it is not haraam to disbelieve in Allaah unless that is accompanied by not encouraging the feeding of the poor. If it is said that the prohibition of such things one at a time is proven from other reports, the response to that is that the prohibition of musical instruments is also known from other evidence, as mentioned above. (Nayl al-Awtaar, 8/107).

 Some of them said that “idle talk” does not refer to singing; the refutation of that has been mentioned above. Al-Qurtubi (may Allaah have mercy on him) said: This – the view that it means singing – is the best that has been said concerning this aayah, and Ibn Mas’ood swore three times by Allaah besides Whom there is no other god, that it does refer to singing. Then he mentioned other imaams who said the same thing. Then he mentioned other views concerning the matter. Then he said: The first view is the best of all that has been said on this matter, because of the marfoo’ hadeeth, and because of the view of the Sahaabah and the Taabi’een. (Tafseer al-Qurtubi).

 Ibn al-Qayyim (may Allaah have mercy on him), after quoting this Tafseer, said: Al-Haakim Abu ‘Abd-Allaah said in the Tafseer of Kitaab al-Mustadrak: Let the one who is seeking this knowledge know that the Tafseer of a Sahaabi who witnessed the revelation is a hadeeth with isnaad according to the two Shaykhs (al-Bukhaari and Muslim). Elsewhere in his book, he said: In our view this hadeeth has the same strength as a marfoo’ report. Although their tafseer is still subject to further examination, it is still more readily acceptable than the tafseer of those who came after them, because they are the most knowledgeable among this ummah of what Allaah meant in his Book. It was revealed among them and they were the first people to be addressed by it. They heard the tafseer from the Messenger (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) in word and in deed. And they were Arabs who understood the true meanings of (Arabic) words, so Muslims should avoid resorting to any other interpretation as much as possible.

 Some of them said that singing is a form of worship if the intention is for it to help one to obey Allaah!

 Ibn al-Qayyim (may Allaah have mercy on him) said: How strange! What type of faith, light, insight, guidance and knowledge can be gained from listening to tuneful verses and music in which most of what is said is haraam and deserves the wrath and punishment of Allaah and His Messenger? … How can anyone who has the least amount of insight and faith in his heart draw near to Allaah and increase his faith by enjoying something which is hated by Him, and He detests the one who says it and the one who accepts it? (Madaarij al-Saalikeen, 1/485)

 Shaykh al-Islam said, discussing the state of the person who has gotten used to listening to singing: Hence you find that those who have gotten used to it and for whom it is like food and drink will never have the desire to listen to the Qur’aan or feel joy when they hear it, and they never find in listening to its verses the same feeling that they find when listening to poetry. Indeed, if they hear the Qur’aan, they hear it with an inattentive heart and talk whilst it is being recited, but if they hear whistling and clapping of hands, they lower their voices and keep still, and pay attention. (Majmoo’ al-Fataawa, 11/557 ff)

 Some say that music and musical instruments have the effect of softening people’s hearts and creating gentle feelings. This is not true, because it provokes physical desires and whims. If it really did what they say, it would have softened the hearts of the musicians and made their attitude and behaviour better, but most of them, as we know, are astray and behave badly.

 Conclusion

 Perhaps – for fair-minded and objective readers – this summary will make it clear that the view that music is permissible has no firm basis. There are no two views on this matter. So we must advise in the best manner, and then take it step by step and denounce music, if we are able to do so. We should not be deceived by the fame of a man in our own times in which the people who are truly committed to Islam have become strangers. The one who says that singing and musical instruments are permitted is simply supporting the whims of people nowadays, as if the masses were issuing fatwas and he is simply signing them! If a matter arises, they will look at the views of fuqahaa’ on this matter, then they will take the easiest view, as they claim. Then they will look for evidence, or just specious arguments which are worth no more than a lump of dead meat. How often have these people approved things in the name of sharee’ah which in fact have nothing to do with Islam!

 Strive to learn your Islam from the Book of your Lord and the Sunnah of your Prophet. Do not say, So-and-so said, for you cannot learn the truth only from men. Learn the truth and then measure people against it. This should be enough for the one who controls his whims and submits himself to his Lord. May what we have written above heal the hearts of the believers and dispel the whispers in the hearts of those who are stricken with insinuating whispers. May it expose everyone who is deviating from the path of Revelation and taking the easiest options, thinking that he has come up with something which  none of the earlier generations ever achieved, and speaking about Allaah without knowledge. They sought to avoid fisq (evildoing) and ended up committing bid’ah – may Allaah not bless them in it. It would have been better for them to follow the path of the believers.

 And Allaah knows best. May Allaah bless and grant peace to His Messenger who made clear the path of the believers, and to his companions and those who follow them in truth until the Day of Judgement.

 Summary of a paper entitled al-Darb bi’l-Nawa li man abaaha al-Ma’aazif li’l-Hawa by Shaykh Sa’d al-Deen ibn Muhammad al-Kibbi.

 For more information, please see:

 Al-I’laam bi Naqd Kitaab al-Halaal wa’l-Haraam, by Shaykh al-‘Allaamah Saalih ibn Fawzaan al-Fawzaan

 Al-Samaa’ by Shaykh al-Islam Ibn al-Qayyim

Tahreem Aalaat al-Tarab, by Shaykh Muhammad Naasir al-Deen al-Albaani (may Allaah have mercy on him)

Islam Q&A
Sheikh Muhammed Salih Al-Munajjid

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Points of Benefit from al-Adab al-Mufrad [1] of Imam al-Bukhari [2]
Compiled by Abu Madeena ibn Abdul Hameed


Indeed all praise belongs to Allah, and may His peace and blessings be upon His final Messenger Muhammad ibn Abdullah, peace and blessings be upon him, the best in character and manners, to whom we are commanded to follow and emulate. And may Allah’s mercy and forgiveness be upon the Prophet’s beloved family and noble companions.

To proceed …

Chapter 1: Honouring One’s Parents

Imam al-Bukhari opened his book al-Adab al-Mufrad with a chapter concerning the honouring of one’s parents, indicating its importance over the other topics he later covers. He began by citing a verse from the Noble Qur’an:

“And We have enjoined on man to be dutiful to his parents.” [3]

Imam ibn Kathir [4] said regarding this verse:

“Allah commands His servants to be dutiful to parents … because a person’s parents are the cause of his existence [by His permission]. So he must treat them with the utmost kindness and respect, his father for spending on him and his mother because of her compassion for him.” [5]

In several places in the Qur’an (including what has been cited), Allah mentions obedience to one’s parents after commanding His slaves to worship Him alone. So worshipping Allah without committing shirk, which is the greatest sin of all, is connected to honouring one’s parents [6], therefore this duty is not to be treated lightly. One can find much benefit from the following verses, concerning the manner in which parents should be honoured. Allah says:

“And that you be dutiful to your parents. If one of them or both of them attain old age in your life, say not to them a word of disrespect, nor reprimand them but address them in terms of honour.”

“And lower unto them the wing of submission and humility through mercy, and say: My Lord! Bestow on them Your mercy as they did bring me up when I was young.” [7]

Imam ibn Kathir explains:

“[This] means, do not let them hear anything offensive from you, not even say uff which is the mildest word of disrespect. ‘Nor reprimand them’ means, do not do anything horrible to them. ‘Ata’ bin Rabah [8] said that it meant, ‘Do not raise your hand against them.’ When Allah forbids speaking and behaving in an obnoxious manner, He commands speaking and behaving in a good manner, so He says ‘ … but address them in terms of honour,’ meaning gently, kindly, politely, and with respect and appreciation. ‘And lower unto them the wing of submission and humility through mercy’ means, be humble towards them in your actions. and say ‘My Lord! Bestow on them Your Mercy as they did bring me up when I was young’ means, say this when they grow old and when they die.” [9]

Imam al-Bukhari then related the first hadith, indicating its high status over the others to come:

‘Abdullah ibn ‘Umar [10] said, “I asked the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, which action Allah loves best. He replied:

‘Prayer at its proper time.’

Then what? I asked. He said:

‘Then kindness to parents.’

I asked, Then what? He replied:

‘Then jihad in the Way of Allah.’

He [ibn ‘Umar] added, “He told me about these things. If I had asked him to tell me more, he would have told me more.” [11]

From the benefits of this hadith are,

  • We find in the etiquettes of the Companions, that they were keen to please Allah, by performing acts which He loved, as appose to what they loved,

  • It contains an example for the one who wishes to know something, that he should ask the people of knowledge, and

  • We find that the following three acts are beloved to Allah:

    1. The virtue of prayer at its proper time, that is soon after the prayer time has entered as opposed to the prayer of the hypocrites who would leave prayer to just before the commencement of the following one.

    2. The kind treatment of parents, and

    3. The virtue of jihad in the way of Allah, an act which involves great sacrifice and courage.

And so between the lofty second pillar of Islam, that is prayer at its proper time, and the invitation to martyrdom – that is jihad in the way of Allah, lies the kind treatment of parents, which provides a sufficient exhortation to treat parents better, because by doing so, we earn the pleasure of Allah, following the footsteps of our pious predecessors.

Imam al-Bukhari then relates another narration from Abdullah ibn ‘Umar, who said:

“The Pleasure of the Lord lies in the pleasure of the parent. The Anger of the Lord lies in the anger of the parent.” [12]

From the benefits of this narration are, [13]

  • We learn that Allah’s Pleasure is connected to the pleasure of one’s parents,

  • Likewise, we learn that Allah’s Anger is connected to the anger of one’s parents,

  • Seeking the Pleasure of Allah leads one to Paradise, and provoking His Anger leads one to the Hellfire so this narration is a key to Paradise for the one who wishes to enter it,

  • Pleasing one’s parents increases the bond the parent and child has, it also makes the home a pleasant environment,

  • This narration confirms the Divine attribute of Pleasure, however the Pleasure of Allah is not like the pleasure of His creation, that is because pleasure is an emotion that indicates weakness where-as Allah is free from imperfection, and

  • Likewise, this narration confirms the Divine attribute of Anger, however the Anger of Allah is not like the anger of His creation, that is because anger is an emotion which can lead one to do something irrational, which denotes weakness in the creation, where-as the anger of Allah is free from imperfection.

In conclusion, the importance of honouring one’s parents are, [14]

  1. Obedience to Allah and His Messenger, peace and blessings be upon him,

  2. Obeying and honouring one’s parents is a means of entering Paradise,

  3. Respecting and honouring them brings friendship and love,

  4. Respecting and obeying them is a way of showing gratitude to them because they are the ones who brought you into this world, and

  5. If a person honours his parents this may be the cause of his own children honouring him.

Furthermore, disobedience to one’s parents is from the major sins. However there is no obedience to the creation if it entails disobedience to Allah and His Messenger, peace and blessings be upon him. As for after the parents have died (and if they died in a state of Islam), the child can do many things, such as the following:

  1. If he has wealth, and his parents were in debt, he can discharge their duty by paying off the debt for them,

  2. If he has wealth and his parents had not performed Hajj, he may perform Hajj on their behalf, or pay for someone else to perform Hajj on their behalf (if he has fulfilled the obligation), and

  3. He may pray for forgiveness for them and pray for mercy for them.

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The issue of discrimination experienced by Muslim women who wear hijab when they apply for work was established in 2000 through consultations conducted by Women Working With Immigrant Women (WWIW) with Muslim serving organizations and through surveys of labour organizations and institutions such as the Ontario Human Rights Commission to find out what information these organizations kept on this issue. While everyone was aware that this is an issue, and they all agreed that Muslim women who wear hijab experienced discrimination in employment, no documentation existed. In 2001, WWIW con- ducted the study “No Hijab is Permitted Here” which documented the experience of Muslim women wearing hijab when they apply for work in the manufacturing, sales and service sectors. The study revealed that women who wear hijab are given incorrect information regarding job availability, are denied the opportunity to apply for jobs, made to feel invisible and unwelcome when applying, they are fired from jobs, and they are harassed in the workplace as a result of wearing hijab. Muslim women wearing hijab experienced this discrimination regardless of their age, skin colour, experience in Canada, accent, mannerisms and education. The following are examples of experiences reported by Muslim women wearing hijab and comments made by employers which illustrate the barriers and types of discrimination, which women experience:

  1. Told by employer that she should remove “head cap”
  2. Asked by employer to remove hijab
  3. Told over the phone by employer to go to the company to fill out an application form, however when she arrived soon after at the company, wearing hijab, she was told the position was taken.
  4. She applied for a job not wearing hijab, and was offered the position. When she showed up for work wearing hijab she was told that the position was not available.
  5. Verbal harassment on the job against religion and culture.
  6. Harassment and yelling from supervisor around prayers
  7. Physical harassment by stomping on prayer mats; when she complained of this treatment, she was fired
  8. Given a back room or store room job when she understood she was being hired for a sales job
  9. Told by employer that she would be hired on condition of removing her hijab
  10. Told by employment agency that she should change her name from Mohammed to something else because it will be hard to get a job with that last name

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